Computer-Mediated Comunication And The On-line Classroom (2023)

Zane L. Berge

Director, Training Systems
University of Maryland

Substantial parts of this article are excepts fromBerge and Collins, 1995. For informationon obtaining any of the three volumes in Computer Mediated Communicationand the On-line Classroom call Hampton Press at 1-800-894-8955

In this chapter I discuss the way modern communication technologiesreshape the process of distance education. I also look at thechallenges that the new era brings for the educators. These changesinvolve more than the simple addition of new technologies to thetraditional ways of teaching and learning. Furthermore, the newelectronic tools promote a paradigmatic shift in the organizationof the educational process. The computer network in this modelserves as a mediator rather than as an information processor.This creates a favorable environment for an active learning process,with opportunities for the students to solve some authentic problems.Nevertheless, emerging technologies may look different dependingupon who builds them. Educators must clearly articulate and promulgatetheir goals. Their new visions of distance learning must drivethe decisions about the uses of technology, not vice-versa.

Throughout the history of human communication, advances in technologyhave powered paradigmatic shifts in education (Frick, 1991). Technologychanges both what we can do and what we decide is best to do;big shifts in culture cannot occur until the tools are available.Although before the invention of the printing press, people couldread and write, it was the press that enabled widespread literacy,and an almost total accessibility to the written word. This spreadof literacy changed both class structure and the educational system,with consequences that still shape our attitudes today.

The impact of the printing press upon students of the time hasbeen analyzed and reanalyzed. The press made it possible for allpeople to accumulate knowledge, to record it, and to preserveit. But always, as new technology enables shifts at the levelof delivery, old technologies are augmented, not totally replaced.Today, although many of us have access to inventions such as radio,television, and computers, we still use and will continue to usebooks, speech, and pen or pencil. Just as the printing press causedchange in the system of educational delivery but did not resultin a complete abolishment of either the written word or the oral/auralconnection (witness the popularity of lecture classes even now),so too the new electric and electronic technologies will findtheir level before settling comfortably and permanently into theeducation scheme.

Schooling is only a part of education. Much of education takesplace outside of schooling, both as planned activities and asunplanned learning. We may not understand the instructional goalsof the Music Television (MTV) channel broadcasts, and those goalsmay differ from those of educators, but that doesn't mean MTVviewers don't learn anything. Ultimately we must consider whatkind of world we as educators want to help build. If we envisioncomputers and telecommunications merging as a new tool for teachingand learning, now is the time to clearly articulate and promulgateour goals in order to shape future uses of instructional technology.

Environments. For communications to take place, there mustbe a sender, a receiver and a message. If this message is intendedas instruction, then besides student, teacher, and content, wemust also consider the environment in which this educational communicationoccurs. Environments that benefit the educational system in someways may also constrain it in others. Part of the "new"learning environment will probably include various technologiesand media. If "the medium is the message," that is,if technology changes what we can do and how we think about it,then the various media enabled by instructional technology canalso change both what we can do in education and how we conceiveof it.

Isolation vs. socialization. For many years, educatorshave been exploring ways in which to combine theories of differinglearning styles and student-constructed knowledge with the theoryof practice-centered learning. Instead of being considered passiverecipients of knowledge poured into them by the teacher, studentsare now seen as being capable of constructing their own knowledgewith guidance from the teacher. We can offer part of this tutorialguidance by setting up an environment that will provide studentsthe resources necessary for independent exploration. Using emergingcomputer-based technology as a resource, we can encourage studentsto explore their own interests and to become active educationalworkers, with opportunities to solve some authentic problems.

The concept of "tutorial," however, puts focus on thequestion of isolation vs. socialization, an issue in technologicaleducation delivery. As an agent for socialization (Margolies,1991) and collaboration, the networked computer has a greaterpotential in education than does the stand-alone, knowledge-servercomputer. The active environment of social learning provided bya computer with access to local, national, and international networksactually increases interaction and communication among students,teachers, peers, parents, and other members of the world community.

Life-long learning. Changes in our environment involvemore than just adding new technology to old ways of organizingteaching and learning (Moore, 1993). The paradigm shift is froma teaching environment to a learning environment. Another notioncurrent in educational circles is the need to develop motivated,skillful, life-long learners. As knowledge in many fields increasesexponentially, aspiring professionals must acknowledge that duringformal schooling, they can acquire only a small segment of theknowledge base they will need in their careers. Teaching and learningin their fields that may have been static for decades are nowundergoing extraordinary change. We can teach students to becomelife-long learners with the aid of technology that can help themlocate the resources to continue learning.

(Video) Computer-Mediated Communication and Hyperpersonal Interaction

Computer mediated communication. Educators now have useof a technology that merges computers and telecommunication. Knownas Computer Mediated Communication (CMC), it can be used in instructionin three ways--for conferencing, informatics, and computer-assistedinstruction (CAI) (Santoro, 1995). Computer conferencing providese-mail, interactive messaging, and small and large group discussion.Informatics (repositories or maintainers of organized information)include library on-line public access catalogs (OPACs), interactiveaccess to remote databases, program/data archive sites (e.g.,archives of files for pictures, sound, text, movies), campus-wideinformation systems (CWIS), wide area information systems (WAIS),and Gopher/Veronica.

Distance education. A seemingly indisputable plus resultingfrom technology is the ability to deliver distance-education.Although there are some differences between distance educationand classroom education, the significant issues concerning theuse of computer networking and other emerging technologies topromote learning in both are similar.

Distance educators are beginning to focus on a related set ofnotions: (a) that there are different learning styles, (b) thatstudents create their own meaning when learning new things, and(c) that what makes a difference in content retention and transferis not so much what is done by teachers, but what students aslearners can be encouraged to do.

Historically, we have not done a very good job of implementingthe concept of learner-centered education in distance education.One of the reasons for this failure has been that the tools werenot available to do much besides deliver education (as opposedto enable learning) at a distance. Now, improvements in computersand telecommunications allow for a more interactive, integratedlearning environment.

The notion of practice-centered learning is also important todistance learning. CMC mergers of computers and telecommunicationtechnologies give us new tools to support teaching and learningby using computer systems and networks to transfer, store, andretrieve information between humans. The computer network in thismodel serves as a mediator rather than as an information processor.CMC provides electronic mail capabilities, delivers instruction,facilitates student-to-student and student-to-teacher interactionsacross a desk or across the world--a truly valuable tool for distance-education.CMC promotes paradigmatic shifts in teaching and learning fromdistance education to distance learning to merging informal dialogues,invisible colleges, oral presentations, and scholarly publications.But our new visions of distance learning must drive our decisionsabout our use of technology, not vice versa.

While major cultural shifts do not occur without the tools thatmake them possible, once those tools are at hand, the shifts areinevitable. Emerging technologies such as interactive televisionand the "superhighway" for information exchange maylook different depending upon who builds them (e.g., telephonecompanies; cable-television companies; federal governments), butwe may be assured that they will be built by someone. How we aseducators will participate in this enterprise is a vital issue.

Uses of computer conferencing, informatics, and CAI include:

  • mentoring, such as advising and guiding students
  • project-based instruction, either within the classroom orin projects involving community, national, or international problem-solving
  • guest lecturing, which promotes interaction between studentsand persons in the larger community
  • didactic teaching (i.e., supplying course content, postingassignments or other information germane to course work)
  • retrieval of information from on-line information archives,such as OPACs, ERIC, and commercial databases
  • course management (e.g., advising, delivery of course content,evaluation, collecting and returning assignments)
  • public conferencing (e.g., discussion lists using mainframelistserv software)
  • interactive chat, used to brainstorm with teachers or peers,and to maintain social relationships
  • personal networking and professional growth, and such activitiesas finding persons with kindred spirits on a scholarly discussionlist
  • facilitating collaboration
  • individual and group presentations
  • peer reviewing of writing or projects involving peer learninggroups/peer tutorial sessions/peer counseling
  • practice and experience using emerging technologies deemedintrinsically useful in today's society
  • computer-based instruction (e.g., tutorials, simulations,and drills)

The reengineering of education involves not only rethinking theorganization of site-based schools, but also finding ways to unitecomputers and telecommunications and bringing down the schoolhousewalls--a means to deliver instructional content when and whereit is needed, whether in the home, the work-place, or the school.

(Video) Introduction to Computer-Mediated Communication

CMC promotes interaction that is often lacking in the traditionalteacher-based classroom. It allows learners the freedom to explorealternative pathways--to find and develop their own style of learning.An example: What if content could be delivered in the form ofgraphics, text, and/or full-motion video, whenever and whereverin the world it is requested? As teachers and educators, responsiblyparticipating in and making use of the inevitable technologicalchanges at hand, we must view computers not as a threat, but asa signal for change. Computer technologies allow professionalsto share with students the tools to provide guidance to help studentsdevelop meaningful ways to construct their own knowledge.

Technology enables us to implement these new visions in distancelearning. As Berge (1993) points out:

Technology overcomes limits to investigations, opening them tostudents from any or many classrooms, schools, grades, countries,and including experts in the field of inquiry from the collaboration.Effective learning hinges on active engagement by the studentand the construction of knowledge on their own leads to understanding(Sheingold, 1991). This learning then becomes not a solitary process,but rather an occurrence in a larger world of people and technology.

More than merely a shift within education, this movement willbring about major shifts in society and culture. As the numberof students increases, and the number of persons requiring off-campusclasses rises, the very existence and future of a university orcollege may hinge upon serving this newly defined and diversepopulation.

CMC can help us serve that population. In combination with othermedia, computers can utilize an instructional design that teachesto the multiple intelligences that Gardner (1983) speaks of inFrames of Mind (linguistic, logico-mathematical, intrapersonal,spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, and interpersonal). Theidea behind this instructional design is to use as many methodsand formats for instruction (e.g., small group discussion, graphics,lecture, hands-on labs, writing/reflection, sound, CMC, and conferencing)as possible, provided that instructional goals and design dictatetheir use.

Benefits and limitations of CMC teaching and learning.There are many benefits to using CMC, but there are also somelimitations that we should recognize. One of the greatest benefitsof CMC is its ability to liberate instruction from the constraintsof time and distance. The convenience of access from home, school,or office permits many students and instructors to better meettravel, job, and family responsibilities.

CMC promotes self-discipline and requires students to take moreresponsibility for their own learning. Using CMC, the course'sinstructional design can be varied from structured projects toopen projects, where students are free to work on "messy"but authentic problem-solving. Teacher-caution is advised, however,because for some students more structure may be needed. Our goalsshould be to develop self-motivated learners, but also to offerhelp where needed. If designed well, CMC applications can be usedeffectively to facilitate collaboration among students, teachersand guests or experts from outside the classroom.

The use of CMC in instruction is that it is text-based. Writingis essential across the entire curriculum; to communicate on acomputer network requires writing. Used effectively, CMC encouragesand motivates students to become involved in authentic projects,to write for a real audience of their peers or persons in thelarger world community, instead of merely composing assignmentsfor the teacher. However, educators must still recognize thatnot all students can express themselves well in writing, and thateven for those who can, the act of writing and using on-line text-basedapplications can be a time-consuming struggle.

A bonus service of CMC is highlighted by an emerging body of literature,added to by several authors in this volume. They speak from theirown experiences, and deal with the empowerment of persons withdisabilities or physical traits, such as disfigurements or speechimpediments, that might prevent them from equal participationin face-to-face encounters. CMC promotes an equalization of users.Because CMC is at present primarily text-only, the consequentreduction in social cues leads to a protective ignorance aboutwhether the person is someone of greater, equal, or lesser socialself-image. It is impossible to see if the writer took severalhours to draft a one screen response, or several minutes. Responsesare judged by the ideas and thoughts conveyed, more than by whois doing the writing. The lack of social cues and the asynchronousnature of the medium affords those with physical limitations orpersonal reticence the possibility of participating fully andequally in communicative activities within a main stream environment.However, the researchers realize that the changed social contextcues can encourage the opposite response, encouraging non-reticentpersonalities to become overly zealous in their responses, oreven to become publicly inflammatory and aggressive on a personallevel in ways that are generally considered offensive. It hasalso been noted that some students prefer the social aspects ofthe classroom and are unsettled by the lack of the face-to-faceinteraction in CMC, or the lack of a (sometimes) charismatic lecturerduring presentation.

Another potential benefit of CMC is in promoting multiculturalawareness. With the demographic makeup of many countries changingso rapidly, it is becoming increasingly important to develop communicationskills for a culturally diverse community and world. On the otherhand, because the bulk of CMC is conducted in English and in thewritten, rather than spoken word, it may perpetuate some culturalhegemonies.

(Video) Computer Mediated Communication - Free educational software- tellurium, kalzium and more💯💯

Technical benefits to using CMC include the ease of circulatingand archiving files and documents (e.g., teacher messages, studentwork, assignments). On the other hand, the learning curve canbe steep with regard to learning the system and technical how-tosof the computer and telecommunications system. The cost of buyingand supporting systems, or accessing other networks is a significant"overhead" item in schools and colleges today, as isthe cost and inconvenience of repairing or replacing hardware.Further, systems are not 100% reliable, which adds to inconvenienceand wasted time. With so many systems to learn and sources totap, information overload has become a problem as some users strugglewith the lack of criteria to help them in deciding what to keepand what to discard from the swiftly flowing stream of incominginformation.


All these factors--the idea that teachers, information designersand instructional developers can use CMC to promote collaboration,cooperation, sharing of ideas, and as an equalizing medium--meanthat the roles of students and teachers will change. No longerexperts and information providers, teachers become facilitatorsand guides. Conversely, students are no longer passive learners,attempting to mimic what they see and hear from the expert teacher.They become participants, collaborators in the creation of knowledgeand meaning. A problem exists with the gap between technologyhaves and have-nots that reflects, to some degree, the world ofthe culture that created it. We must be aware of this fact, andstrive to create and use CMC innovations which allow for multiplicity,for change, for difference.

There is increased pressure on universities and instructors toprovide instructional delivery systems that go beyond the traditionalchalk-and-talk form of lecture. Computer-mediated conferencinghas emerged as a tool for instructional communication not boundby prescribed meeting times or by geographic proximity. Successfulintegration of CMC into the curriculum, however, depends on ourability to design and use CMC applications which meet course goals,delivery goals.

CMC should be used for what was impossible or very difficult todo without it. CMC can provide an efficient way for students toturn in and receive back their homework, reduce the cost of classroomhandouts, cut travel costs for students and teachers. Some instructorshave used CMC to create a virtual laboratory to allow teachingand learning to transcend time and place, while expanding accessto the very best instructors.

CMC helps to motivate students to write, establishing a meaningfulaudience and context, encouraging writing practice and collaborationacross the curriculum, using models of the writing process.

Educators have also used CMC for:

  • homeschooling
  • to reduce barriers for persons with various physical and learningdisabilities
  • to promote and defend native cultural beliefs and values
  • to increase information sharing and communication withoutgeographic barriers
  • to widen student experience in other countries/cultures
  • to reduce the isolation sometimes felt by teachers and learners
  • to cushion the difficult transition from student to teacherin supporting first-year teacher initiatives

Change is a watch-word in today's society. Most of the changeseducators propose involve three types of problems and opportunities:access, quality, and productivity. One of the goals of educationmust be equal access to (quality) education for all persons seekingit. Educational systems, in their struggle to provide equal access,must not lose sight of the need to provide a high quality of education,despite limited resources available. Thus far, technology hasnot been especially successful in providing tools used for increasingproductivity.

(Video) Computer Mediated Communication and Online Discrimination

There is no shortage of educational vision necessary to use technologyto create new educational environments for the 21st century. Successin helping to meet all three of the goals in teaching and learningis the challenge of the future, a challenge teachers must meetand defeat.


Berge, Z. L. (1993). Beyond computers as tools: Reengineeringeducation. Computers in the Schools. 9(2/3), 167-178.

Collins, A. (1991) The role of computer technology in restructuringschools. Phi Delta Kappan, September, 28-36.

Frick, T. W. (1991). Restructuring education through technology.Fastback Series #326. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta KappaEducational Foundation.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multipleintelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Margolies, R. (1991). The computer as social skills agent. T.H.E.Journal. January 1991, 70-71.

Moore, M. G. (1993). Is teaching like flying? A total systemsview of distance education. American Journal of Distance Education,7(1), 1-10.

(Video) Computer Mediated Communication

Santoro, G. (1995) Overview of computer-mediated communicationin education. In Zane Berge and Mauri Collins (Eds.) Computer-mediatedcommunication and the on-line classroom,. Volume1: Overview and Perspectives. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Sheingold, K. (1991). Restructuring for learning with technology:the potential for synergy. Phi Delta Kappan, September,17-27.

This refers to text omitted in revision. Thornburg, David D. (1991).Education, technology and paradigms of change for the 21stcentury. Starsong Publications.


What is computer-mediated communication in education? ›

Computer-mediated communication CMC) is any form of communication between two or more individual people who interact and/or influence each other via separate computers through the Internet or a network connection - using social software.

What is the connection between computer-mediated communication and Internet? ›

Various research and thesis says that Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) uses internet to mediate for human communication. This multifaceted medium has its created influence so deep rooted, that the dependence on computer and other communication has also affected the psychology of the human mind.

What is computer-mediated communication does this technology help you as a student? ›

Computer-mediated communication (CMC), wherein people use computers and networks to communicate with one another, makes communication across great distances and different time zones convenient, eliminating the time and geographic constraints of in-person communication.

What is the influence of computer-mediated instruction in students? ›

Computer mediated communication has created a major shift in how educators and students think about teaching and learning. By allowing students to learn in more convenient locations and often at more convenient times, distance education opens educational opportunities to previously unreached populations.

How important is computer-mediated communication in our current situation right now? ›

To weaken the spread of the virus, SARS-CoV-2, people were required to reduce their face-to-face contact with others. Computer-mediated communication (CMC) offers opportunities to stay in touch with important people and still meets social needs.

What are the benefits of computer-mediated communication? ›

CMC ensures superiority in reach. Compared to face-to-face communication, CMC enables users to reach out to a vast number of receivers simultaneously. This is particularly useful when it comes to informing a large group of people about the same thing.

What is computer-mediated communication example? ›

Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is a generic term now commonly used for a variety of systems that enable people to communicate with other people by means of com- puters and networks. Well-known examples of such systems include computer conferencing, electronic mail, discussion lists, and bulletin boards.

What are the characteristics of computer-mediated communication? ›

In our analysis of CMC technologies, we found the following four qualities to be fundamental in distinguishing one from the other: temporality (synchronous vs. asynchronous), degree of anonymity, modality, and spatiality.

Why is mediated communication so important in today's life? ›

Communication Through Communication

CMC allows two people to communicate and construct messages that permit them to build personal knowledge of one another. The lack of non-verbal cues does not affect the quality of the interpersonal relationship in the end because of the use of other communication mechanisms.

In what ways can computer mediated learning environments support more active learning? ›

It is often argued that the creation of computer-mediated learning environments can increase interaction involvement by liberating students from the fear or inhibition of talking to instructors or participating in class (D'Souza, 1992; McComb, 1993; Philips & Santoro, 1989).

What is the importance of ICT mediation in teacher education? ›

The mediation of ICTs in teaching-learning has the potential to pioneer new models of TE that are self-directed, need-based, self-paced, decentralized, peer-learning based, mentored and continuous and providing a suitable location in the curriculum for this, is an essential starting point.

Is computer-mediated communication good or bad? ›

CMC is long noted to be lacking in terms of socio-emotional and non-verbal cues. Misunderstandings might happen due to wrong interpretations of the tone and meaning of words. For instance, one person might say something as a joke, but another person on the other side might deduce it as a fact.

How does mediated learning help a child to learn? ›

Mediated learning experience (MLE) thus allows learners to build and modify their capacities through structured learning to which they acquire new skills, behavior patterns, awareness, and a set of strategies that can then potentially be generalized to new experiences and stimuli.

What is the problem of computer-mediated communication? ›

CMC: the lack of social cues and self-monitoring, flaming, anonymity, and exaggerated truth bias. the proposed neuroscientific approach. social cues, flaming and lack of self-monitoring.

What are the negative impacts of mediated communication? ›

On the other hand, the technical nature of CMC contributes to many negative outcomes such as depersonalization, impoliteness, information overload and increase worker stress due to having to respond quickly.

What kind of misunderstanding occur while using computer-mediated communication? ›

Unlike face-to-face communication, nonverbal cues such as tone and physical gestures, which assist in conveying the message, are lost through computer-mediated communication. As a result, the message being communicated is more vulnerable to being misunderstood due to a wrong interpretation of tone or word meaning.

What is the primary focus of computer-mediated communication? ›

Computer-mediated communication (CMC) focuses on the role of interactivity between parties through mediated channels of communication (Rafaeli, 1988). The focus of CMC is on the relationship of new messages with preceding messages, rather than on the number, content, frequency, or timing of the message exchange.

Why is computer based communication important in modern world? ›

Two communicating individuals do not have to be present at the same time to communicate. They also do not have to be in the same place either. Individuals can transmit data and messages instantly, easily, inexpensively, and over long distances quickly.

How helpful is CMC helpful in work efficiency? ›

The results showed that 73% of the respondents agreed that CMC enhanced their overall productivity and efficiency while 27% differed. However, while the findings revealed that the introduction of CMC increased its use as a whole, it impacted negatively on interpersonal relationships among respondents.

What 5 functions or goals can mediated communication help with? ›

There are five communication purposes: coordination, knowledge-sharing, information gathering, relationship development, and conflict resolution.

How does mediated communication impact the message? ›

Communication mediated by technology filters out communicative cues found in face to face interaction, Different media filter out or transmit different cues, and. Substituting technology-mediated for face to face communication will result in predictable changes in intrapersonal and interpersonal variables.

What are three forms of mediated communication? ›

Modes of interpersonal mediated communication include telephone conversations, letters, electronic mail, and audio/video cassettes. The use of these technologies has altered relationships and made face-to-face contact avoidable.

Is Zoom a form of mediated communication? ›

We now communicate just as much online as we do in person. In the Communication discipline we refer to speaking through mediated platforms (Zoom, Instagram, online dating apps, texting, etc.) as “computer mediated communication” or CMC.

How does computer-mediated communication increase stress? ›

use and workplace stress

Employees who communicate with each other using CMC could face various demands, such as pressures to respond quickly to incoming messages, expectations of constant availability, increased workload due to CMC or relationship problems like misunderstandings or cyberbullying (Stich et al., 2015).

How is computer-mediated communication different from face-to-face communication? ›

Computer-mediated communication refers to all communication that takes place via computer, whereas face-to-face communication is just that, communication that takes place with two people actually speaking.

What types of study strategies can be used in an online learning environment? ›

Check out these seven student engagement strategies:
  • Be present.
  • Create interesting learning materials.
  • Provide 1-to-1 sessions.
  • Assign some group work.
  • Create an online forum for discussions.
  • Provide and ask for a regular feedback.
  • Challenge students.
6 Dec 2021

How do you promote active learning in an online classroom? ›

Active Learning in Online Teaching
  1. Ask questions about a lecture with classroom polling. ...
  2. Low-stakes quizzes to check understanding. ...
  3. Zoom chat window to share student responses. ...
  4. Screen sharing. ...
  5. Gradescope.

How can teachers create effective online learning environments? ›

Tips for Creating an Effective Learning Environment in an Online...
  • Goal 1: Generate student-faculty contacts.
  • Goal 2: Encourage reciprocity and cooperation among students.
  • Goal 3: Apply the principle of effective feedback.
  • Goal 4: Emphasize time on task and deadlines.
  • Goal 5: Communicate high expectations.

What are the benefits of an ICT classroom? ›

Top 5 Benefits of Technology in the Classroom
  • Creates a More Engaged Environment. You may think technology is just a distraction, but it can help encourage active participation in your classroom. ...
  • Incorporates Different Learning Styles. ...
  • Improves Collaboration. ...
  • Prepares Children for the Future. ...
  • Connects You With Your Students.

How are teachers currently using ICT for teaching and learning? ›

Application of ICT in teaching makes teaching more innovative, interesting, interactive, easy and effective. It complements the traditional teaching learning process. While imparting knowledge with the aid of ICT, educators find that students are more receptive and responsive.

What is the impact of computer mediated interaction? ›

Computer mediated communication reduces the effects of communication to its lowest level (Allbritton, 2002), while CMC is typed as an extension of face-to-face communication.

Is computer-mediated communication a source of conflict? ›

CMC (Computer mediated communication) is a useful communication media which releases people from both time and space boundaries and makes long-distance communication easier. Nevertheless, a lot of conflicts such as flaming have been reported by CMC users.

What is mediated communication in education? ›

"Computer-mediated communication technologies refer to the use of networks of computers to facilitate interaction between spatially separated learners; these technologies include electronic mail, computer conferencing, and on-line databases" (p. 16).

What is computer mediated teaching? ›

Computer mediated instruction/learning is an umbrella term (Strange & Banning, 2001, p. 184) that describes the efficient and effective use of computer and/or technology to support and facilitate teaching and learning activities (Bull, Kimball & Stansberry, 1998).

What is the purpose of teacher mediated strategies? ›

Mediated Learning Strategies offer opportunities for constant interaction between teacher and student, thereby creating a supportive and nurturing environment for students that are at-risk for academic failure.

What is CMC in second language education? ›

Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) is the broad term for technologies which allow language learners to communicate with other learners or native speakers through text or audio.

How do you use computer-mediated communication in your daily life? ›

Computer mediated communication breaks down geographical barriers to communication enabling collaboration through communication over distance. 2. People can exchange, store, edit, broadcast, and copy any written document. They can send data and messages instantaneously, easily, at low cost, and over long distances.

How has computer aided communication changed the way communication takes place at work? ›

Thanks to smartphones, chat apps, and industry-specific social networking sites, communication in the workplace has become fast, collaborative, more deliberate, and unified. Technology allows employees to engage in important work even when outside the office, and keep in touch with coworkers, even face-to-face.

What is the meaning of computer-mediated? ›

Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is an umbrella term that encompasses various forms of human communication through networked computers, which can be synchronous or asynchronous and involve one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many exchanges of text, audio, and/or video messages.

What is mediated communication simple definition? ›

The term "mediated communication" refers to any situation where a technological medium is introduced into face-to-face interaction. This includes interpersonal mediated communication, media-simulated interpersonal communication, person-computer interpersonal communication, and unicommunication.

What is an example of mediated communication? ›

Mediated communication also includes telecommunications, radio, film, television and digital technologies. Electronic mail is digital mechanism for exchanging messages through internet or intranet communication platforms.

What are the 2 types of computer-mediated communication? ›

Computer-mediated communication can be broken down into two forms: synchronous and asynchronous. Synchronous computer-mediated communication refers to communication that occurs in real-time. All parties are engaged in the communication simultaneously; however, they are not necessarily all in the same location.

Is computer mediated communication good or bad? ›

CMC is long noted to be lacking in terms of socio-emotional and non-verbal cues. Misunderstandings might happen due to wrong interpretations of the tone and meaning of words. For instance, one person might say something as a joke, but another person on the other side might deduce it as a fact.

How does computer mediated communication increase stress? ›

use and workplace stress

Employees who communicate with each other using CMC could face various demands, such as pressures to respond quickly to incoming messages, expectations of constant availability, increased workload due to CMC or relationship problems like misunderstandings or cyberbullying (Stich et al., 2015).

What are the three P's in mediated communication? ›

Effective Communications Techniques Using the 3 P's: Pause, Pivot, Positive - PME.

How is mediated communication changing the way we communicate? ›

Communication mediated by technology filters out communicative cues found in face to face interaction, Different media filter out or transmit different cues, and. Substituting technology-mediated for face to face communication will result in predictable changes in intrapersonal and interpersonal variables.

What are different types of mediated and online communication channels? ›

Instant messages, computer, audio, and video conferencing are synchronous computer-mediated communication examples, while text messages, email, discussion forums, and mailing lists are asynchronous computer-mediated communication examples.

How does computer-mediated communication differs from face-to-face communication? ›

Computer-mediated communication refers to all communication that takes place via computer, whereas face-to-face communication is just that, communication that takes place with two people actually speaking.


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