Can critical thinking be learned? This question stands atthe core of most of the world’s educational systems with significant andobvious implications for the business world. In fact, many would argue thatcritical thinking is the primary aim of formal education. Despite itscentrality to the objective of formal education, educational institutions –even the best ones – struggle to help students develop it. A WallStreet Journal analysis of student critical thinking assessments taken at thestart and then end of a four-year postsecondary experience found that studentsin many colleges make little progress on this dimension.
Can Critical Thinking Be Learned?
The challenge of teaching critical thinking has likely ledto the debate over whether it can be taught at all, which has waged on for thelast 80 years. In 1983, the A Nation At Risk report caused the country totemporarily table this debate in favor of hopeful thinking. The report found that17-year-olds did not possess the “higher-order intellectual skills” needed to doeven the simplest critical thinking tasks like draw inferences from writtenmaterial and compose a persuasive essay. The nation rallied to fill thiscritical gap, producing hundreds of programs and curricula.
But as these programs proliferated the American educationalsystem without having much impact on youth’s critical thinking abilities, thedebate was re-opened. Daniel Willingham, a professor of cognitive psychology atthe University of Virginia and author of Cognition: The Thinking Animal,summarizes this skepticism:
After more than 20 years of lamentation, exhortation, and little improvement, maybe it’s time to ask a fundamental question: Can critical thinking actually be taught? Decades of cognitive research point to a disappointing answer: not really. People who have sought to teach critical thinking have assumed that it is a skill, like riding a bicycle, and that, like other skills, once you learn it, you can apply it in any situation. Research from cognitive science shows that thinking is not that sort of skill.American Educator, Summer 2007
Willingham’s synthesis paints a dire picture, but,fortunately, it is not the full story. A review of 341 studies on theteachability of critical thinking was published in the Review ofEducational Research in 2015, concluding:
Results demonstrate that there are effective strategies for teaching critical thinking skills, both generic and content specific, and critical thinking dispositions, at all educational levels and across all disciplinary areas.Review of Educational Research, 2015See AlsoUse Critical Thinking Skills to Excel at Problem-SolvingProblem-solving and Critical Thinking Competencies | Holistic CompetencyCritical Thinking 101 | OnlineColleges.netThe Difficulties of Teaching Critical Thinking » Eleanor Konik
How do we reconcile these differences? We must, ourselves,apply the skills of critical thinking. In doing so, we find, as one does in manycircumstances, that there is truth in both of these statements. Criticalthinking can be learned, but it is quite difficult. Critical thinking islearned through a specific process of self-improvement called deliberate practiceand it can take a long time to master it.
Why Most Critical Thinking Development Efforts Fail
Most efforts fail because of a transferability problem.While everyone defines critical thinking differently, a common thread is that criticalthinking is a generic skill that can be applied across an unlimited number ofdifferent topic areas and disciplines. Our simple definition – providing arobust answer to a question – carries this same connotation: learn how to thinkcritically and you’ll be able to apply it to any question you face.
The problem is that when students and adults are taughtgeneric critical thinking skills they often fail to apply them in scenariosthat differ from the ones they were introduced to in the training. For example,though students participating in one experiment were shown how to solve a mathword problem involving vegetables in a garden, only 19%successfully applied the methodology used in the garden problem to solve aproblem involving a marching band requiring the same methodology. They couldn’tsee that the skill they had just learned was also applicable in the secondscenario.
The problem of transferability has caused some to conclude that critical thinking can only be taught and learned in the context of deep immersion in a specific content area. Those who believe this would say that chemical engineers, for example, must learn critical thinking strategies specific to chemical engineering and that the mastery of those skills would be of limited use in different disciplines, such as marketing.
Though some studies have demonstrated this challenge, theproblem of transferability cannot be insurmountable. In fact, the whole premiseof organized education is built on the idea that what you learn in school you’llbe able to apply in other contexts outside of school and long after your schooldays are over. Most critical thinking trainings fail because of the problem oftransferability, but this can be overcome – as we’ll describe in the nextsection.
The 4 Components of Effective Critical Thinking Training
Unlike mastering algebra, which requires breaking it downinto specific skills and then mastering each, becoming an exceptional criticalthinker requires a more holistic approach. Diane Halpern, a former universitydean, former head of the American Psychological Association, and creator of oneof the most scientifically validated critical thinking assessments, assertsthat criticalthinking training requires four components:
1 – Critical Thinking Skills
This is the most obvious component of critical thinking training. The specific skills will vary depending on who you ask. We describe four primary skills with 16 sub-skills. Halpern offers five: verbal reasoning, argument analysis, hypothesis testing, likelihood and uncertainty, and decision-making and problem-solving. Given the breadth of critical thinking, you’ll likely want to start with one to two skills and work up from there. We designed the Critical Thinking Roadmap to help you determine where your skills are now and where you’ll want to go next.
2 – Critical Thinking Disposition
Your critical thinking disposition is the attitude you take toward the information you consume and the decisions you must make. You can be a master of critical thinking skills, but if you lack the corresponding disposition, you won’t make use of those skills. Edward Glaser, who could be considered a father of critical thinking, found in his research that disposition is the easiest of these four components to learn and change. Glaser describes this attitude as being “disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one’s experience.” Clyde Herreid, a professor of biological sciences at the University of Buffalo, describes this disposition this way: “If I had to choose one general characteristic that cuts across smart people it would be skepticism—the ability to ask oneself and others if the conclusions and data are correct.”
Halpern puts forth five attitudesthat make up the disposition of the best critical thinkers and compliment thetwo former, simpler descriptions:
- Willingness to engage in and persist at acomplex task
- Habitual use of plans and the suppression ofimpulsive activity
- Flexibility or open-mindedness
- Willingness to abandon nonproductive strategiesin an attempt to self-correct
- An awareness of the social realities that needto be overcome (such as the need to seek consensus or compromise) so thatthoughts can become actions
You can develop these attitudes byconducting thought experiments around what it looks like to exhibit these attitudesin specific contexts. By translating this disposition into a set of behaviors,you’ll know when you are demonstrating these attitudes and when you need tomake adjustments.
3 – Structural Aspects of Problems
People struggle to transfer a critical thinking skill they’ve mastered in one context to a different context because they don’t recognize the underlying similarities between the two contexts. In other words, what looks different to them has fundamental similarities. Researchers call this tendency recognizing “surface structure” instead of the “deep structure” of a problem or scenario. By learning the common deep structures you may encounter and the cues that will signal to you that a certain context belongs to a certain deep structure, you can determine in real-time which learned skills (part 1) you should apply in the context at hand.
To wrap your head around the structural aspects of problems,start by understanding the most common structures – or to use another term,mental models – you’re likely to see in your line of work. Extensive exposureto a long list of common mental models is what enables consultants to add valuewithout knowing as much about their clients’ companies as the clientsthemselves. Consultants have seen the same problems over and over again acrossmany clients so that when they begin working with a new client, they quicklyrecognize what type of problem is at hand and as a result, can leverage theappropriate lessons from past experiences.
How do you identify the mental models in your industry? The moreexamples you review, the more quickly you’ll notice the mental models at play.This is why spontaneous noticing (accurately identifying the structure at hand)often comes with time. You can try to short-cycle this process by finding a wayto observe the experiences of others (e.g., reading case studies, interviewingexperts) rather than relying solely on your own experiences. It can also helpto build a mental menu of common generic mental models. Shane Parrish, former Canadianintelligence officer and writer of the widely read Farnam Street blog, hascompiled a broad list of mental modelsin his blog and books series.
4 – Metacognition
Metacognition is your ability to monitor your own thoughtsand pass judgment on the quality of your thoughts and thought processes. Youknow you are strong in metacognition when you can regularly answer thequestion, “Do I know why I am thinking the way I am?” It is challenging to knowwhy you’re thinking a certain way because the thought process that led to your currentconclusions primarily happened subconsciously. Those good at metacognition usea discrete set of questions to move their thought process from their subconsciousto their conscious thoughts. By doing so, you’re able to assess and critiqueyour thought process.
Halpern recommends asking yourself these questions to build metacognitionskills:
- Howmuch time and effort is this problem worth?
- Whatdo you already know about this problem or argument?
- Whatis the goal or reason for engaging in extended and careful thought about thisproblem or argument?
- Howdifficult do you think it will be to solve this problem or reach a conclusion?
- Howwill you know when you have reached the goal?
- Whatcritical-thinking skills are likely to be useful in solving this problem oranalyzing this argument?
- Howmuch progress have you made and are you moving toward a solution?
Together these four components make up an evidence-based wayto learn critical thinking skills. However, how you attempt to learn these skillswill also influence your success.
Learning Formats that Build These Skills
Researchers have reviewed four different methods of learningthe four modules of critical thinking mentioned above:
- Individual study
- Authentic or anchored instruction (i.e., instructionthat is linked explicitly to real-life situations)
The review of 341 studies mentioned earlier found that dialogueand authentic instruction each produced significant results independently. Dialogueworked well when a teacher or facilitator posed questions to a group. However,students achieved the largest gains in critical thinking when exposed to acombination of dialogue, authentic instruction, and mentoring.
Authentic instruction should involve the use of “ill-structuredproblems” (i.e., those that don’t have a definitive right or wrong answer) andbe rich in information. When working with these ill-structured problems, it’simportant that you give yourself and others time to think, and after initial thoughtsare shared, time to reflect on your thinking and improve it. One specific wayto do this is to use the “interrupted case method,” in which a facilitatorshares a real problem, then asks you or your group to come up with a solution, andthen shares additional information about the problem and asks you to come upwith another solution. The key is to start with a focused question.
Critical thinking skills can be learned. It won’t be easy because they are higher-order thinking skills that rank among the most demanded by employers in 2020. Avoid taking an overly simplistic route to mastering critical thinking, like reading a book on decision-making or logic, and build all four components into your training plan using the learning formats just mentioned – or join our Critical Thinking Mastermind, which is designed around these findings.